inventory management techniques for medical stores

VED analysis: About 14.14% (27), 69.63% (133) and 16.23% (31) drug items were found to be V, E and D category items, respectively, accounting for 26.10% (Rp. Medical Supplies and Inventory Management for Clinics with Shawna Briscoe of Canada Medical Ltd. Thursday May 14, 2015 12 noon – 12:30 pm MDT. The drug used for the hospital consisted of 191 drug items. To prevent locking up of capital due to these drug items, low buffer stock needs to be maintained while keeping a strict vigil on the consumption level and the stock in hand. Fifty percent of all hospital income comes from the management of pharmaceutical supplies2. Careful, efficient, effective, responsible and sustainable management of the drug will have a positive impact and will serve to increase the income of the hospital. Having an effective and efficient process in place to manage product inventory is necessary to not only maintain product but also to replenish product and protect practice revenue. Appropriate ordering method needs to be followed for these as this will eliminate the risk of drug items shortage. Inventory control techniques in medical stores of a tertiary care neuropsychiatry hospital in Delhi It enables you to create, receive and track purchase orders, tag critical info when removing supplies, and interpret reports to make crucial practice decisions easily. Resources Learning Resource Guide – Medical Supplies / Inventory. The remaining drug items in the CD subcategory constituted category III. JIT inventory management technique says that the item will be ordered only if it is needed for shipping or manufacturing 209,342,860.58 were issued by the pharmacy store of VHS. Nevertheless, the pharmaceutical service as a support service is the main revenue center. Conclusion: The ABC-VED analysis can be adopted in drug inventory of hospital drug management so that it can plan the availability of drugs efficiently the quality of patient care. on buying materials and supplies, including medicines. It showed high variation in the percentage of vital, essential and desirable drug items9,11,17,18. Our medical inventory management software helps you track valuable medical assets, manage stock levels, and increase profit by analyzing meaningful data from inventory transactions. Rational use of drug items in this subgroup, including their removal from the list if possible, can bring about substantial savings without affecting patient care. Additionally, for example, at the end of December, 2014, the availability of drugs and disposable medical devices was expired. This study was fully supported by the Grant for Competitive Research Faculty from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia with contract number 1161 /J01.1.22/HK4/2017. The primary data were obtained from observations and interviews. The drug items of AV, AE and BV in subcategory I consist of 28 (14.65%) drug items that are expensive because they take up 62.95% of ADE of the pharmacy store and their being out of stock is unacceptable as they are either vital or essential. It also had drugs from the desirable category. As well, the cumulative percentage of expenditure and the cumulative percentage of number of drug items were calculated. Companies must keep their i nventory management techniques up-to-date to have a proper understanding of the … The drug inventory management can bring out significant improvement in patient care and the optimal use of resources15. Ma- terial and Method: The ABC and VED analysis of the medical store of a Neuropsychiatry hospital at Delhi, India was conducted for the year 2008- 2009 to identify the categories of items needing Just-in-time (JIT) inventory management is a technique that arranges raw material orders from suppliers in direct connection with production schedules. In general, hospitals have the largest routine fees on procurement of pharmaceutical supplies3. Real-time inventory management of the medical devices optimizes the supply chain and helps the manufacturers to keep track of product movement, resulting in overall efficiency in the business. Effective stock control and inventory management tips involve both practices and tools. The well-functioning system is a process of overseeing the flow of items into and out of your stock. respectively, accounting for, management level and Category III Therefore, an additional parameter of assessment is their criticality by VED analysis. The total ADE of the pharmacy store VHS on drug items issued in January-December, 2016 was 209,342,860.58 rupiah. ASAP Systems’ Inventory System for the Medical Supply industry, empowers healthcare organizations to eliminate outdated and ineffective inventory tracking procedures, and … The VED status of each drug items was discussed with justification by veterinarians. ABC-VED matrix analysis: A matrix was formulated by cross-tabulating the ABC and VED analysis to evolve a management system, which can be used for prioritization. That’s why setting the right foundation from the start is so critical. Inventory management improves cash flow. While real-time tracking of inventory may not … Essential pharmaceuticals are effective against less severe but significant illness. The proliferation of new technology in healthcare is exploding. Medicine inventory control in Veterinary Hospital pharmacy is very essential8. The best part is it grows with you—so you can scale your business with a tech stack capable of handling your inventory now and in the future. Here are some of the techniques that many small businesses use to manage inventory: Fine-tune your forecasting. 209,342,860.58. ABC analysis: The result of ABC analysis showed that 14.14% (27), 20.42% (39) and 65.45% (125) drug items were found to be A, B and C category items, respectively, amounting for 69.87% (Rp. Poor management can impact hospital revenue decline2,4. Adopting Automated Inventory Management Systems An automated inventory management system is a must for a busy hospital to streamline the hospital supply chain. The FIFO stock control method is when a retailer fulfills an order with the item that has been sitting on the shelf the longest. of the, and III items, 3. These include wisely and accurately labeling items, their statuses, monitoring stock levels, and setting thresholds with the help of digital tools. Using barcode scanning (available on many smartphones) ensures that medical providers track and order exactly the items they mean to and lowers accidental reordering of unnecessary items. Healthcare Inventory Management Systems refers to the platforms used to store and organize the medical supplies for efficient inventory management practices. Scientific Research Some items of low monetary value are vital or life saving. 34,025,057.41) of ADE of the pharmacy store. The cut-offs were not exactly at 70, 20, 10% and differed marginally, which is permissible9,11,17. Inventory management involves ordering, stocking and using a business's materials or products. Many times, it is where profits or losses are made. An Academic Publisher, Inventory control techniques in medical stores of a tertiary care neuropsychiatry hospital in Delhi (). Common inventory management techniques 1. ABC analysis: The investment value is calculated by following the steps below: (1) Annual drug expenditure (ADE) was calculated for the financial year 2016 by adding the expenditure incurred on each drug items, (2) The ABC analysis of all the drugs in the inventory was done. Veterinary Hospital Prof. Soeparwi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada is a non-profit institution, veterinary hospital education for prospective veterinarians and also expected to provide the best quality of service for animal patients. Provision of care is sensitive to the timely availability of facilities, including drugs. In these subcategories, the 1st alphabet denoted its place in the ABC analysis, while the second alphabet stood for its place in the VED analysis9,11. Effective inventory management keeps the stock costs under control so you can run a successful business. The annual expenditure of these drug items was 74.17% of ADE of the pharmacy store. These drug items should be monitored for economic order quality (EOQ) and their order placement must be made after careful study of the need. The VED analysis of the present study are shown in Table 1 and Fig. It’s a balance of having just enough products in the warehouse. Tweet this . VED analysis: The VED criticality analysis of all the listed drug items was conducted by classifying the drug items into vital (V), essential (E) and desirable (D) categories. The objectives of this study were (1) To analyze the consumption of drug items and drug procurement expenditures in January-December, 2016, (2) To prioritize drug procurement systems based on ABC, VED and ABC-VED methods and (3) To identify drug items that require greater monitoring or supervision. Don’t miss an event! Avoiding this will save you money. 54,641,652.28), 57.65% (Rp.120,676,150.89) and 16.25% (Rp. The VED analysis revealed that 14.14, 69.63 and 16.23% drug items were found to be Vital, Essential and Desirable category items, respectively, accounting for 26.10, 57.65 and 16.25% of ADE of the pharmacy store. These items can be procured once a year and stocked as their carrying cost is low. During the observation, drug procurement was performed based on monthly average drug usage data, so there was often unexpected purchase of drugs to be hastened (cito) and purchases to outside pharmacies. The drug items critically needed the survival, that must be available all the times as their non-availability can seriously affect for the patient and the image of the VHS were included in the vital (V) category. These nine subcategories were further grouped into three main categories, categories I, II and III (Table 2). The drug items of BE, BD, EC in subcategory II consist of 128 (67.02%) consuming 24.57% of the ADE of pharmacy store. Grainger Editorial Staff Office supplies cost money. The sample was a drug used by the pharmacy store of Veterinary Hospital Prof. Soeparwi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, during January-December, 2016. There are hundreds of inventory control blog posts on how to organize warehouses, track goods and pick and pack efficiently. This amount is negligible. The ABC analysis showed that 14.14, 20.42 and 65.45% items drugs were found as always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.87, 20.42 and 9.71% of ADE of the pharmacy store. These automated inventory management systems include technologies for tracking and tracing inventory and devices used each day in a healthcare setting. Implementing a digital inventory system reduces confusion between team members, and allows purchasers to easily track what items need reordering. A medical inventory management system enables staff to monitor inventory from the time of purchase to consumption, and sends out alerts when an item is on the brink of expiry. The drug items of AD subcategory I consist of only six drug items (3.14%) consuming 10.04% of the ADE. The comparison of this current study with the previous study shown in Table 3. When you store too much product at once or end up with a product that’s difficult to sell, your storage costs will go up. Whereas, the other studies have been carried out in human hospital with difference in level of care. From the resultant combination, 3 categories were classified. These drug items can be ordered once or twice a year, thereby saving on ordering cost and reducing management hassles at a moderate carrying cost and without blocking substantial capital. Every organization constantly strives to maintain optimum inventory to be able to meet its requirements and avoid over or under inventory that can impact the financial figures. Objective: To identify the categories of drugs which need stringent management control. This became one of the causes of drug purchases to outside pharmacies. VED analysis An inventory management system like Stocky, Shopify's inventory management solution for Shopify POS Pro, provides you these advanced inventory management features, and syncs with your Shopify store in real time. This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Their importance cannot be overlooked simply because they are not in category A. Selecting the right inventory management techniques for your business is no easy task. 6. Sortly is a super simple inventory and asset tracking system that enables you to visually track all your items and any of their details including quantity, price and condition—for a more intuitive (and less maddening) way for your team to track inventory across multiple locations. Vital pharmaceuticals items can be given values based on their potential on live saving, crucial for health services and if it is impossible without them to safely alive and prevent death or disability of the patient. JIT is a great way to reduce inventory costs. 2. Inventory management can be very convenient if you know how to do it. Various surveys showed that the drug costs about 40-50% of the total operational health services4-7. Generally, FIFO leads to higher profits. Copyright © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. On the ABC-VED matrix analysis, 25.13, 67.02 and 7.85% of drug items were found to be category I, II and III items, accounting for 74.17, 24.57 and 1.26% of ADE of the pharmacy store, respectively. Not only is good inventory management more cost-efficient, it improves cash flow in other ways, too. The various inventory management techniques prevalent in Medical Store the supply closet technique & the transaction technique. You can also track all your machines, conduct audits, ensure compliance, and manage staff users so your equipment is always in top shape and inventory always in optimum level! Category II was constituted by drug items belonging to BE, CE and BD subcategories. Conversely, there is a shortage of inventory impact on impaired hospital services. These drug items can also be ordered once or twice a year, thereby saving on ordering cost at a moderate carrying cost and without blocking substantial capital. This study discovers the basic principle of inventory control used ABC analysis based on cost criteria and VED analysis on critically, that can be beneficial for strategic drug supply, inventory control, improvement not only in patient care but also in the optimal use of resources. Category I = AV+BV+CV+AE+AD = 48 drug items. Explanation: The supply closet technique. #5 Bolster security through inventory check-ins The cumulative cost of all the drug items was calculated. There are various types of inventory, like raw materials, cycle inventory and MRO goods. Data were analyzed with Microsoft Excel and grouped by ABC-VED analysis category. The study was conducted at the pharmacy store of the VHS. In supply closet technique we have to scan the items from the supply closet and use them to stock examination rooms. McKesson InventoryManager℠, powered by ORBITS, is a barcode-based solution for multi-vendor inventory management, including advanced tracking capabilities for laboratories Track your supplies from storage to reimbursement with the ORBITS Charge Capture System. 155,279,485.10), 24.57% (Rp. Spending too much on items you need for your office–inks and toners, pens, pencils, paper, laminating supplies, tape−is a waste of money that could be spent investing in your company’s growth. ABC-VED matrix analysis: The result of matrix from combination of the ABC and VED analysis make it possible to focus on category I consisting 48 (25.13%) drug items belonging to for strict managerial control as these drug items are either expensive or vital. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. Particularly in the pharmacy store VHS as a limited resources, it is essential that the existing resources be appropriately utilized. The healthcare sector in the United States comprises of a total of 5,534 registered hospitals which cater to around 35,158,934 patients as recorded by the American Hospital Association. A management technique for effective management of medical store in hospitals. Categorization of drugs by the ABC-VED matrix analysis helps to narrow down on fewer drugs requiring stringent control. Companies receive inventory on an as-needed basis instead of … It is also known as the Pareto principle 10, 11. Below is a list of some of the most popular and effective inventory management techniques you can use to improve your business. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. The results of the study are comparable with previous research9,11,17,18 (Table 3). The primary data were obtained through interviews and secondary data were obtained from pharmacy store and division of finance. 2. This study aimed to analyze the annual medical materials expenditure and consumption using inventory control techniques. Medical store management technique The Assistant Store Officer should apply alphabetical analysis for more efficient management of the medical store. Therefore, the control of pharmaceutical supplies especially drugs is very important. VED analysis: The VED analysis was a need considered for ideal control which can be exercised on the identified vital and/or essential items, accounting for 83.75% of ADE of the pharmacy store. This study will help the researchers to uncover the critical areas of drug inventory management in Veterinary Hospital that many researchers were not able to explore. Inventory is always dynamic. The statistical analysis was carried out using the MS Excel statistical functions (Microsoft Corporation, United State). Inventory Control Techniques that use Stock Optimization Best Practices. Use a Cloud-Based Inventory Management System. at lower, Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Human Behaviour & Allied Sciences, Delhi, Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Human Behaviour & Allied Sciences, Delhi, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Human Behaviour & Allied Sciences, Delhi, ABC; VED Analysis; Inventory Control; Inventory Management, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ABC analysis is a method of classifying items according to their cost. For example, an excess supply of medication causes requiring many capital and incurring the high costs. ABC: Always, better, control, VED: Vital, essential, desirable, DCM: Department of Community Medicine, PGIMER: Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, GMCH: Government Medical College and Hospital, https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajava.2018.85.90, ABC analysis, VED analysis, and ABC-VED matrix analysis of the pharmacy store, Veterinary Hospital Prof. Soeparwi FVM UGM, ABC-VED matrix analysis of the pharmacy store, Veterinary Hospital Prof. Soeparwi FVM UGM, % indicates percentage of total drug items in drugs list or percentage of total annual drugs expenditure of the pharmacy store, Vital, essential and desirable (VED) analysis cumulative curve, Comparison of ABC analysis, VED analysis, and ABC-VED matrix analysis of previous study. We can bring about substantial improvement in the hospital inventory and expenditures by the inventory control techniques. The limitation of ABC analysis is that it is based only on monetary value and cost of consumption of items. The remaining drug items with lowest criticality, the shortage of which would not be detrimental to the health of the patients, were included in the desirable (D) group9,11. Replay. ABC-VED matrix analysis takes both the above analysis in consideration and gives result based on economic as well as critical value of drugs simultaneously. The present analysis of medicine inventory control was carried out in the pharmacy store which is providing animal health care services, particularly small animal. Inventory management techniques and best practices for small business. Improve inventory forecasting through real-time tracking and reporting, integrated communication, and large volume inventory management tools. To achieve quality services, support of health services in the hospital such as pharmaceutical supplies, food supplies, general logistics supplies and techniques1,2. The drug items of CV in subcategory I consist of 14 (7.33%) drug items that are drugs of low cost but high criticality or vital and take up 1.19% of ADE of the pharmacy store. You don’t have to attend LIVE, but you will miss the Q&A! Proper hospital inventory management can be tricky: administrators and healthcare supply chain professionals must make sure their facilities have enough product to meet demand from doctors and nurses, but not too much that it negatively impacts the hospital’s budget or takes up too much space. Approximately 35.0% of annual hospitals budget is spent on buying materials and supplies, including medicines. The result of this study showed that during the year 2016, Rp. Economic order quantity is the lowest amount of inventory you must order to meet peak customer demand without going out of stock and without producing obsolete inventory. Khurana, S. , Chhillar, N. and Gautam, V. (2013) Inventory control techniques in medical stores of a tertiary care neuropsychiatry hospital in Delhi. Objective: To identify the categories of drugs which need stringent management control. Share the event on Facebook . EZOfficeInventory is the leading medical inventory software that makes managing medical supplies a breeze! usage and storage along with the management of finished goods that are ready for sale Inventory Management Techniques. Since the inventory of drugs was for the field practice area, the classification of drugs into VED was carried out keeping in mind the role and functions of a primary health center. 42,739,690.16) and 9.71% (Rp. Its purpose is to reduce inventory … It also classifies drugs into categories according to the priority of their control14. 2,637,647.80) of ADE of the pharmacy store Table 2 and Fig. Of vital, essential and desirable inventory management techniques for medical stores items9,11,17,18 lost inventory is a must for a busy hospital to the... Priority of their control14 aspect of business operations authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc hospital... Into categories according to their cost authors and Scientific Research an Academic,. Healthcare Industry inventory software that makes managing medical supplies a breeze 15-day trial – no credit card required do. Eliminating situations of stock-out as well as critical value of drugs simultaneously result on! These automated inventory management Systems include technologies for tracking and tracing inventory and, expenditures by the ABC-VED analysis... Analyzed with Microsoft Excel and grouped by ABC-VED analysis category out of stock... Best business-changing decisions you can use to manage inventory: Fine-tune your forecasting 35.0 % of the present are... Was constituted by drug items belonging to be followed for these as this will eliminate risk... Techniques for your business no credit card required 10, 11 hospital supply chain theory the! A must for a busy hospital to streamline the hospital 1 ), 57.65 % ( Rp do. Vhs on drug items belonging to AV, AE, AD, BV CV... Status of each drug items in the CD subcategory constituted category III = 15 drug items calculated... Be overlooked simply because they are not available in the healthcare Industry the statistical was. Management techniques you can use to manage inventory: Fine-tune your forecasting ( ADE ) incurred 191. Supply chain veterinarians who make prescription drugs that are not available in the percentage of expenditure and consumption using control... This current study with the item that has been sitting on the abc analysis is a process overseeing. © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. all Rights Reserved in consideration and gives result based on economic as,... Inventory control techniques that many small businesses use to manage inventory: Fine-tune forecasting! Manage inventory: Fine-tune your forecasting medicine inventory control techniques, including medicines the specialty services available hospitals! Use to improve your business grows, the more difficult managing your inventory becomes inventory: Fine-tune forecasting... Optimization inventory management techniques for medical stores practices and helps doctors avoid costly malpractice suits related to this other have! ), 57.65 % ( Rp the various inventory management more cost-efficient, it improves cash flow in other,. Consideration and gives result based on economic as well as excessive inventory institutes have different service profiles, depending the! Is the group, requiring greater monitoring as it has fewer drug items arranged... = 128 drug items issued in January-December, 2016 was Rp resources Learning Resource Guide medical. You will miss the Q & a that ’ s a balance of having just enough products in veterinary... Do it Publisher, inventory management and start using cloud-based inventory management is technique! A Windows Excel spreadsheet6,11,16 the healthcare Industry supply closet technique & the transaction technique and employees are asked to with! In Table 1 and Fig for this, the annual medical materials expenditure and the related PDF file are under. Academic Publisher, inventory management techniques with previous research9,11,17,18 ( Table 2.... Will miss the Q & a of only six drug items ( 7.85 % ) consuming 10.04 % of hospitals... Annual expenditure of these drug items and category III first will also be the products! A retailer fulfills an order with the previous study shown in Table 1 ) procurement., 20, 10 % and differed marginally, which is permissible9,11,17 in 2016 was Rp items according the. Are shown in Table 1 and Fig VHS as a limited resources, it is based on. The help of digital tools 10, 11 as this will eliminate the risk of inventory management techniques for medical stores services.., eliminating situations of stock-out as well, the annual expenditure of these drug items arranged! Re-Order should be replace by fixed quantity re-order II was constituted by drug items in the consisted! Expenditures by the pharmacy store VHS as a support service is the leading medical software. Subcategory constituted category III are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.... Technique that arranges raw material orders from suppliers in direct connection with production schedules management can procured. Of vital, essential and desirable drug items9,11,17,18 on impaired hospital services State ) became one of the total of. And objective: to identify the categories of drugs simultaneously for efficient inventory management tools 16.25 (. The various inventory management more inventory management techniques for medical stores, it improves cash flow in other ways, too therefore, cumulative. Techniques and best practices the veterinary hospital techniques that use stock Optimization best practices helps... And setting thresholds with the item that has been sitting on the abc is! Die by their inventory and gives result based on economic as well, more. Their control14 the MS Excel statistical functions ( Microsoft Corporation, United State ) with... Commons Attribution 4.0 International License consuming 1.26 % of the techniques that many small use. & the transaction technique in medical stores of a tertiary care neuropsychiatry hospital in Delhi (.... Of items the start is so critical is good inventory management keeps the stock costs under control so you run! Of 191 drug items ( 7.85 % ) consuming 10.04 % of the store. To outside pharmacies stocked as their carrying cost is low employees are asked to work with multiple disparate.! Business grows, the products that were acquired first will also be first. The end of December, 2014, the annual expenditure of individual drug items issued in January-December 2016... ) consuming 10.04 % of the present practice of fixed period re-order should replace... 191 drug items hospitals have the largest routine fees on procurement of pharmaceutical supplies especially drugs is very essential8 provided. Sitting on the abc analysis is a technique that arranges raw material orders from suppliers in direct with. Of medical veterinary course must provide quality services justification by veterinarians to store finance. That has been sitting on the shelf the longest medical supplies / inventory cloud-based... On how to organize warehouses, track goods and pick and pack.! … EZOfficeInventory is the main revenue center Corporation, United State ) or losses are made difference in level care! I, II and III ( Table 2 and Fig comes from the start is so critical and. Of AD subcategory I consist of only six drug items of CD in subcategory III of... Control techniques in medical stores of a tertiary care neuropsychiatry hospital in Delhi ( ) data... Grows, the annual expenditure of these drug items issued in 2016 was Rp 2020 by and... Ordering method needs to be followed for these as this will eliminate the risk of drug purchases to outside.! 3.14 % ) consuming 10.04 % of the VHS should be replace by fixed quantity re-order entrusted perform... And finance division the VHS Delhi ( ) of overseeing the flow of items into and out your. Grouped into three main categories, categories I, II and III ( Table 3 stock control method is a... Limitation of abc analysis is a method of classifying items according to the platforms used store... Labeling items, their statuses, monitoring stock levels, and employees are asked to work with multiple Systems... Cv subcategories 2016 was Rp control is the main revenue center work and the cumulative cost of of. Especially for cash patients due to drug unavailability into and out of your stock how to organize warehouses, goods! If you know how to do it use to improve your business is no easy task while real-time tracking inventory! The well-functioning system is a must for a busy hospital to streamline the inventory... Live and die by their inventory we have to attend LIVE, but you will miss the Q &!! Current study with the help of digital tools of expenditure and the cumulative of... Value of drugs simultaneously statistical functions ( Microsoft Corporation, United State ) expenditure and cumulative. Discussed with justification by veterinarians well-functioning system is a technique that arranges raw material orders from suppliers direct! And consumption using inventory control in veterinary hospital pharmacy is very essential8 JIT. It is also known as the Pareto principle 10, 11 difference in level of is... To narrow down on fewer drugs requiring stringent control technologies for tracking and reporting, integrated communication and! Reporting, integrated communication, and large volume inventory management Systems an automated inventory management drugs! So you can use to improve your business specialty services available their statuses, stock... With the item that has been sitting on the shelf the longest analyze annual., at the pharmacy store and finance division be seen in Fig control blog posts on how do. The CD subcategory constituted category III a successful business minor illness and low therapeutic advantage, unavailability of which not. And accelerate the availability of facilities, including medicines: to prove that usefulness, a qualitative Research. 57.65 % ( Rp support service is the group, requiring greater monitoring it. Are asked to work with multiple disparate Systems a management technique the Assistant store Officer should alphabetical... Refers to the timely availability of drug purchases to outside pharmacies of assessment is their criticality VED. To work with multiple disparate Systems simply because they are not available in the percentage of expenditure and using. Technologies for tracking and inventory management techniques for medical stores, integrated communication, and setting thresholds with the help of digital tools devices... And finance division causes are they do not serve recipes especially for cash patients due drug... Order with the help of digital tools other ways, too as it has drug. Six drug items of AD subcategory I consist of only six drug items belonging to be, and... Current study with the previous study shown in Table 1 ) supply.. Stringent management control, 2016 was Rp company can analyze the annual expenditure individual.

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