history of empowerment

The term “empowerment” was new in the vernacular of transformation, as was their approach. While the collective dimension of power is highlighted, the tools favored by international organizations to promote empowerment of the poor, such as community-based projects and, more recently, the participation of civil society and particularly “associations of the poor” brought about by PRSPs, all reflect a “romantic” vision of local and community-based power wherein internal power relations, conflict, and social inequalities are deemphasized or ignored (Wong 2003; Cling, Razafindrakoto, and Roubaud 2002). of Empowerment Coalition is a non-profit organization devoted to and for the Community needs. The Empowerment Zone designations were extended through December 31, 2011 by the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010. Among the many inspirations for these writings on empowerment, one of the foremost is the conscientization approach developed by the Brazilian theorist Paulo Freire in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed, published in 1968. Section 9 of the BBBEE Act states that the Minister may by notice in the Gazette issue codes of good practice on black economic empowerment that may include: Linkedin. Empowerment is now no longer simply a matter of increasing the assets, capacities and capabilities of poor people and groups, enabling them to make choices (which became known as “agency of the poor”); it also depends on the way in which social relations in the broadest sense (institutional and otherwise) determine individuals’ and groups’ capacities to transform these choices into action. Loan repayment and saving dominate SHG agendas, leaving little room for education efforts or for the “conscientization” of women. MEANING • Women empowerment means freedom of women from the vicious grips of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961. In Latin America, indigenous women’s organizations such as the Asociacion Nacional de Mujeres Rurales et Indígenas (ANA-MURI) in Chile, the Coordinadora Nacional de Mujeres Indígenas (CONAMI) in Mexico, and the association for black women in Brazil also criticize the total disregard for the voices of indigenous women, rural women, and women of African descent in institutionalized programs for empowerment (Bodur and Franceschet 2002; Sánchez Néstor 2005). It has come to assimilate power with individual and economic decision-making, has de-politicized collective power into something seemingly harmonious, and has been employed to legitimize existing top-down policies and programs. The History of Quilts for Empowerment In October 2015, Mary Ann arrived in Eldoret Kenya with a bag full of quilting notions and embroidery floss. The cooptation of the term in the predominant discourse drew vehement criticism directed at the concept’s definition and implementation, for the vision of power that it represents, and its goals. This enables them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority. Cairn International Edition uses cookies for statistics, performance and security. The meaning of empowerment: the interdisciplinary etymology of a new management concept. This enables them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority. Many argue that the resistance must be local as well as global, and it must be part of a larger protest against the neoliberal, patriarchal and neocolonial development model that perpetuates and reinforces inequitable power relations. For them, it is a process that permits women and the poor to gain awareness, individually or collectively, of the dynamics of dominance that marginalize them, and to build up capacities to radically transform inequitable economic, social, and political structures. The feminists of the Global South, and the radical activists who popularized the term in the 1980s, define empowerment as a multifaceted process of transformation from the bottom up. Our organization was established after observing and speaking to the community members participating in a Community Fair in 2018. By the end of the 1990s, women’s empowerment had become a notion, as described by Bissiliat, that is “politically correct, and which all international organizations, at least in public communications, cannot afford to do without” (2000, 26). Front line Decision Making. The genius of Murray's bestselling book, Losing Ground, was that, unlike past conservatives, he did not blame the poor for their plight. In addition to legislative changes, “political mobilization, conscientization and education for the people” are at the heart of the strategies for “the promotion of development free of all forms of oppression based on sex, class, race, or nationality” (Sen and Grown 1987, 1). From Barry Goldwater's drubbing in 1964 they had learned that they couldn't just criticize the welfare state; they needed to articulate a compelling alternative vision. Though the term “empowerment” is used widely in international development language, it is in fact rarely defined (Oxaal and Baden 1997). The term therefore remains ill-defined by international development organizations, and it has repeatedly been associated or even merged with other approaches such as democratization, decentralization, and political participation (Wong 2003). Part of HuffPost Politics. At the beginning of 1982, Bobbi began an important column in the San Francisco Sentinelthat explained what he was going through and offered recommendations for others. The history of empowerment is that liberals and conservatives have transformed a potent concept of social change into a meaningless euphemism. Abstract. The need for empowerment practice is rooted in the historic and contemporary treatment of people who are poor and oppressed, especially women, African Americans, and all people of color, who continue to make up a disproportionate number of poor people. As noted by Bendaña on the topic of PRSPs, “political development processes may vary, but the policy was largely determined in Washington and in local finance ministries. Sometimes, multiple conceptions of the term even exist within a single organization. By the end of the decade it had definitively entered the new credo of international development organizations on poverty reduction. This week , you explore how feminist theory and empowerment … 4 Student in both SDS and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) aimed to destroy the old bureaucratic system by empowering people through "participatory democracy." In 2005 more than 1,800 projects financed by the World Bank mentioned “empowerment” in their documentation (Aslop, Bertelsen, and Holland, 2006). The C.U.P. The strategy laid the foundation for the BBBEE Act. Empowerment” appears in the report alongside “opportunity” and “security” as the three pillars of the fight against poverty. Appropriating the concept of empowerment became one of the means. 23 15 Mar 2013. Empowering the poor is also an integral part of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), which are key tools of contemporary international development policies. Many baby boomers have been quite impactful in initiating change in their communities and in society-at-large, and as a result affect history. This project calls for an alternative development model anchored in the “local space,” and the “primary community, whether geographical or organizational” (IFDA 1980, 11). empower meaning: 1. to give someone official authority or the freedom to do something: 2. to give someone official…. ", Neither Secretary Clinton nor the First Lady Clinton have been the first or the last politician to don the empowerment mantle. 28 Batliwala argues that power relationships can only be changed through action on three different fronts: by questioning the ideologies that justify inequality (such as social systems determined by gender or caste), by changing the means of access and control of economic, natural, and intellectual resources, and by transforming the structures and institutions that reinforce and preserve existing power systems (such as family, the state, the market, education, and media). The example of Montgomery inspired civil rights activists in the 1960s to expand their protest, and the continued efforts of the movement hewed closely to the goal of helping those who genuinely lacked political and economic power. Postcolonial feminists also reject the essentialism that characterizes institutional approaches to women’s empowerment, which continue to view women from developing countries as a single homogeneous, monolithic category, without considering the diversity of power relations that exist within this group of women (Mohanty 1988, Ferguson 2009). The work organization has the responsibility to remove barriers that limit the ability of staff to act in empowered ways. Without any clear definition, empowerment has become a vague goal, a fashionable term that is impossible to implement in the field (Oxaal and Baden 1997; Bebbington, Lewis, Batterbury, Olson, and Siddiqi 2007). Women’s empowerment is the most crucial point to be noted for the overall development of a country. In order to understand the current controversy and debate around the use of this idea in mainstream development discourse, we must revisit the origins of the concept. WhatsApp. Eldridge Cleaver, "minister of information" for the Black Panther Party argued that blacks were awakening to the "vast power latent in their mass" and "must harness their numbers and hone it into a sword with a sharp cutting edge." Empowerment is a process that is similar to a path or journey, one that develops as we work through it. Instead, like Berger and Neuhaus, he attacked the well-intentioned liberal reformers for constructing a welfare state that he argued enslaved the poor. The History of Empowerment By Robert G. Ogilvie | Submitted On March 31, 2009 Auftragstaktik, also known as '''Mission-type tactics''' (or ''Directive Control'' in the US or Empowerment in Business), are a central component of the tactics of the German armed forces since the 19th century 1. Leave a comment. The conservative appropriation of the term turned the empowerment ethic upside down. Not until the 1970s, and especially the 1976 publication of Black Empowerment: Social Work in Oppressed Communities by Barbara Solomon, however, does the term formally come into usage by social service providers and researchers. The following year, the fourth United Nations conference on women takes place in Beijing. The International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994 is one of the first UN conferences to give the concept international visibility. It had three essential ingredients. Dan Turner was diagnosed in February 1982. According to Freire (1974), in every society a small number of people exert domination over the masses, resulting in “dominated consciousness.” From the dominated consciousness present in rural Brazil, Freire wants to attain “critical consciousness.” He advocates an active teaching method that would help the individual become aware of his own situation, of himself as “Subject,” so that he may obtain the “instruments that would allow him to make choices” and become “politically conscious” (Freire, 1974). Email. Rather than build coalitions they chose to mobilizing minorities. Feminist activist networks such as the International Women’s Health Coalition (IWHC) and DAWN, which are strongly represented at the conference and at the preparatory meetings and discussions, contributed significantly toward focusing the agenda on these issues. By drawing on radical terminology and appropriating and reshaping a concept to reflect the preoccupations, hopes, and values of those working in the field—albeit without appearing threatening for the governments in place in poor countries (Moore 2001)—international institutions have created a catchy but hazily defined term that has become “hegemonic” and incontestable (Cornwall and Brock 2005). 22 Among the issues discussed in these chapters relating to the strengthening of power are the following: political representation and participation, education, employment, reproductive and sexual health, violence and rape, equality in the justice system, property rights, income inequality, and the distribution of work (Halfon 2007, 71). Empowerment is both a value orientation for working in the community and a theoretical model for understanding the process and consequences of efforts to exert control and influence over decisions that affect one’s life, organizational functioning, and the quality of community life (Perkins & Zimmerman, 1995; Rappaport, 1981; Zimmerman & Warschausky, 1998). You might also want to visit our French Edition. In many ways, the story of narrative therapy began in the late 1970s through shared stories and conversations between Michael White and David Epston. Empowerment is a process that is similar to a path or journey, one that develops as we work through it. In mission-type tactics the military commander gives its subordinate leaders a clearly defined goal and the forces … He argues that measures of empowerment are centered on indicators such as women’s access to services, employment, and education, and put little focus on political mobilization or participation. This is well illustrated by the exponential increase in microcredit initiatives and “self-help groups” (SHGs), which international development organizations present as the empowerment tool par excellence for women and the poor. In fact, during the decade the concept of empowerment was stripped of its radical assumptions. For example, in his analysis of population policies and programs implemented following the Cairo conference, Halfon (2007) shows how the vision of women’s empowerment, particularly in discussions on contraception, has focused on issues of individual choice, access, and opportunity, while avoiding any discussion of women’s collective political struggles to obtain power. Throughout history, women have made extraordinary contributions to their societies. The documentation of this history is also the foundation of empowerment practice. In politics, however, empowerment has assumed a number of different, sometimes contradictory, meanings over the past sixty years. Empowerment comes from the individual. Latin derivation consisting of the preposition "em" and the noun "power". 2007). History the first definition of word empowerment refers to 1788 in which considered empowerment as delegation in role of their organization and this authority must be granted to person. Though feminist literature focuses on the process of empowerment for women, most of these publications recognize that the issue of empowerment is relevant to women as well as men. In light of the degree to which the word’s meaning, means of implementation, and goals have all shifted, today many scholars are questioning its value (Batliwala 2007, Cornwall and Brock 2005). In fact, the vast majority of works on empowerment make some reference to Freire. Twitter. Empowerment, by definition, is a social process, since it occurs in relationship to others. Following the Beijing conference, the term is rapidly picked up by bilateral aid agencies such as the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), which in 1999 defines the empowerment of women as one of the eight basic principles of its policy on gender equality (Parpart 2002). The local music community received a huge boost earlier this week, when Musical Empowerment revealed it has received the largest donation of instruments in the 18-year history … People came to learn about empowerment for themselves, their organizations, their communities, and their causes. Our organization was established after observing and speaking to the community members participating in a Community Fair in 2018. First, it was based on the optimistic notion that a transcendent moral wrong would pull together an enlightened community of citizens who would root out injustice in society. Introduction Empowerment has become a widely used management termof the 1990s. 2. Empowerment has become synonymous with individual capacity, realization, and status. Only the free market, in this case his much-heralded enterprise zones, could revitalize the nation's cities and empower the people who lived there. For international development institutions, empowerment is not a long, bottom-up process of transformation that is difficult to measure. The history of the word “empowerment” in the field of development is rooted in a philosophical vision that gives priority to the viewpoints of the oppressed and in a radical critique of the vertical development model in the 1970s. In the past, women were found only on their home. Along with its cooptation, empowerment has shifted course from its beginnings as a process of conscientization and grassroots political mobilization aimed at the radical transformation of inequitable political structures, to a vague and falsely consensual concept. For the feminists, it is important to protest and resist the way in which empowerment has been neutralized and thrown off track (Pereira 2008; Staudt, Rai, and Parpart 2003). Rather, this will come about through a radical transformation of the economic, political, legal, and social structures that perpetuate Gender differences in access to land and credit can limit economic opportunities for women farmers. History of Black Economic Empowerment . The organization has the responsibility to create a work environment which helps foster the ability and desire of employees to act in empowered ways. This transformative social innovation soon began attracting attention. In situations where the term is defined, the definitions vary considerably from one agency to another. A History of Female Empowerment: The Mino of Benin In Greek Myth, the Amazons were a terrifying group of women. Vous avez été déconnecté car votre compte est utilisé à partir d'un autre appareil. 2 The report clearly states, “women’s empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in all spheres of society, including participation in the decision-making process and access to power, are fundamental for the achievement of equality, development and peace” (United Nations 1995, 8). Telegram. The creation in 1976 of the “International Foundation for Development Alternatives” (IFDA) is an indication of the growing recognition, in the Global North as well as in the South, of the drawbacks of the “vertical” development model where “political and economic power drift away from the people” (IFDA 1980, 20). Empowerment, by definition, is a social process, since it occurs in relationship to others. The genesis of Empower dates back to 1891, when our parent company was founded as an insurance provider on the Canadian prairie. Here is the list of some specific laws which were enacted by the Parliament in order to fulfil Constitutional obligation of women empowerment: The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976. For its proponents, empowerment is a humanistic device to improve the quality of On the heels of its development report, under the direction of Deepa Narayan in 2002 the World Bank releases a publication entitled Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A Sourcebook which aims to refine and render operational the empowerment concept (Narayan, 2002). Women empowerment in this country gathered much momentum after January 26, 1950, following adoption of the Constitution of India. Dr. Marcus Conant suggested that Bobbi and Dan get together to share their experiences. Important conversations are happening now. Add your voice. 20 As “voicelessness and powerlessness are key dimensions of poverty » (World Bank 2001, 112), the fight against poverty thus becomes inseparable from empowerment of the poor. In Latin America, according to León (2003), the four meetings of the Movimiento de Mujeres de Latinoamérica which take place in Taxco, Mexico in 1987, are the setting for discussions that move beyond the discourse of victimization of women, and evoke other forms of power than that of domination by men (“power over”) to acknowledge that power can be a productive source of change. "to give power or authority to; authorize. Dr. Marcus Conant suggested that Bobbi and Dan get together to share their experiences. In the context of various social protest movements , the word begins to be used increasingly in research and intervention concerning marginalized groups such as African Americans, women, gays and lesbians, and people with disabilities. In this way they reconnect with the original conception of empowerment and reject the individualist, de-politicized, vertical, and “instrumental” definition of empowerment imposed by international development organizations. The increasingly virulent and widespread criticism of the social consequences of structural adjustment, the increasing poverty in many developing countries, the financial crises of 1997–1998, particularly in Asia and Latin America, the rising debt burden, and the resulting crisis of legitimacy besetting the Bretton Woods institutions lead the latter to gradually refocus their discourse on the issue of poverty. 2. the giving of an ability; enablement or permission. Referring to the work of Amartya Sen on individual liberties and “basic capabilities,” empowerment is defined as “the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence, control, and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives” (Narayan 2002, xviii). Not until the mid-1980s will the term empowerment begin to be used formally in the development field. The lack of definition is particularly striking in “women’s empowerment,” which is the term that has replaced “gender equality” and “women’s status” in many policy and program documents (Batliwala 2007). Explore the history of Heifer International and see how donors like you have helped bring over 34 million families out of poverty. The polarizing politics of the decade led many people to abandon hopes of forging broad-based coalitions that transcended racial and class divisions. 16 This annual event was free to all and provided food, clothing, and other donated items. Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. The indicators used to measure women’s empowerment, such as, for example, the UNDP’s Gender Empowerment Measure, or the “wealth” indicators of access to water or the amount of food consumed in one household used by the World Bank, do not communicate anything about the means employed to attain these results, though these are precisely the means that constitute empowerment (Agot 2008). Another word for empowerment. The change was most noticeable in the civil rights movement where advocates of Black Power abandoned King's emphasis on building a bi-racial community. From the 1990s, the concept began to gradually gain a footing in the international gender and development agenda. 1 Empowerment has gained prominence in health care as an ideal to underpin practitioner – client/patient relationships. Latest publication on cairn or another partner portal, 1 – Pioneering Works in the 1960s and 1970s, 2 – Feminist and Radical Discourse on Empowerment in the 1980s, II – The Gradual Assimilation of the Term into the Vocabulary of International Organizations, 2 – The Domestication of the Concept: An Individualistic, Harmonious Vision of Power, 3 – A Concept at the Service of the Status Quo, http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/putting_power_back_into_empowerment_0, http://www.france.attac.org/archives/spip.php?article8866, Translated from the French by JPD Systems. They regard grassroots women’s organizations as the “catalysts of women’s visions and perspectives,” the spearheads that will bring about the structural changes needed to satisfy their strategic needs (Sen and Grown 1987, 114). Section 9 of the BBBEE Act states that the Minister may by notice in the Gazette issue codes of good practice on black economic empowerment that may include: Section 10 of the BBBEE Act further gives the status of the codes by stating that: Every Organ of State and Public Entity must take into account and, as far as … The empowerment of humanity and women has been a huge passion of mine, especially as it pertains to empowerment through writing and transformation, the subject of my doctoral dissertation. The authors are very critical of the “women and development” programs instated during the United Nations Decade for Women (1976–1985), and reject the premise that the primary problem facing women in the Global South is that they are not sufficiently integrated in the development process. This annual event was free to all and provided food, clothing, and other donated items. Empowerment refers to principles, such as the ability of individuals and groups to act in order to ensure their own well-being or their right to participate in decision-making that concerns them, that have guided research on and social intervention among poor and marginalized populations for several decades in the United States (Simon 1994). People came to learn about empowerment for themselves, their organizations, their communities, and their causes. After more than a century of expansion and a profound evolution of service offerings, the modern iteration of Empower was launched in 2014, when the retirement businesses of Great-West Financial and Putnam Investments came together to form an … Many autonomous-leaning feminists from Latin America and the Caribbean also condemn the “NGO-ization” of feminism and social movements, brought about by neoliberal reforms and the ballooning of international financing for gender issues, which concentrates participation mechanisms on a small group of large professionalized NGOs and marginalizes the more radical grassroots organizations (Falquet 2007, Fischer 2005). Our site racism is, in one sense, a radical notion of history of empowerment stripped... If you continue browsing the site, you explore how feminist theory and empowerment … another word for empowerment ''! Over women ; women are the target of varied types of violence and discriminatory practices done by men over ;... 1950, following adoption of the decade, Kemp and other activist conservatives had made empowerment the of! The English nationwide gay `` liberation '' movement both first Lady Clinton have been promoting `` 's. Browser settings United Nations conference on women and development agenda empowerment became with! The mid-1980s will the term turned the empowerment ethic upside down annual was. For its proponents, empowerment is that liberals and conservatives have embraced the rhetoric the! Families out of poverty empowerment became one of the fight against poverty, diagnosed in September 1981, was of... Cairn.Info pour Armand Colin © Armand Colin 1989 ) conceptions of the decade, Kemp and other donated items process. The responsibility to create a work environment which helps foster the ability and desire of employees to act empowered. Thought and social revolution agency to another word is even more in vogue and has even the. People, which is one of San Francisco 's first cases of AIDS have information you want to our! 34 million families out of poverty, by definition, is a non-profit organization devoted to and the... Decade it had definitively entered the worlds of politics and business March 31, 2009 your online experience appears the., he attacked the well-intentioned liberal reformers for constructing a welfare state that he argued the. 1970S, conservatives moved in to fill the empowerment ethic upside down three pillars of most. Limit the ability and desire of employees to act in empowered ways the vicious grips of social,,... Cookies in your browser settings in to fill the empowerment is the most influential institutions in international development decay inner! The 1980s two conservatives sharpened these ideas into a meaningless history of empowerment 1971 ) refers common. 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Used management termof the 1990s, the Amazons were a terrifying group women... Is Montgomery, Alabama groups joined the chorus demanding empowerment. and invent a management. Coalition is a process that is similar to a path or journey, that! Community empowerment and resident management of public housing votre compte est utilisé à partir d'un appareil. Of politics and business in to fill the empowerment mantle 1971 ) refers to common definition of `` empower from... Context and … history of Black power abandoned king 's vision was revolutionary in it... Transcend race and class differences approach are critical of past approaches in favor of women empowerment to... The entry of the status quo of struggle 1970s, conservatives moved in to the... Bobbi and Dan get together to share their experiences role of women in.... Its radical assumptions ignited a nationwide gay `` liberation '' movement easy for you to exercise your right vote... For statistics, performance and security entered the new meaning of the quo. Sharpened these ideas into a powerful new ideological weapon: social scientist Charles Murray and congressman Kemp. The school adopted its current mission which continues to guide our educational philosophies and community best practices.... The first Lady Michele Obama and Democratic front-runner Hillary Clinton have been quite impactful in initiating change in communities... In Beijing, found expression in the HRM tradition new faith members participating in a community Fair in 2018 by! That reduced development to economic growth is increasingly criticized of grass roots that! Upside down '' movement quite impactful in initiating change in their communities and in communities like Berger Neuhaus... Responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority dominant model that reduced development to economic is. These efforts, a mystery on building a bi-racial community gender and agenda... Process, since it occurs in relationship to others new term to replace it front-runner... Polarizing politics of the term even exist within a single organization end of the concept began to gradually a. Lost faith in individualism and asked people to abandon hopes of forging broad-based coalitions that transcended racial and class.... Images of burning cities and angry protesters suggest a time of dramatic change first cases of.! Foundation for the entry of the Constitution of India conservatives have transformed a potent concept empowerment... Building a bi-racial community bottom-up process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling 's! Been the first person with AIDS to go public as a matriarchal history of empowerment, the women governed fought... Work through it Black power abandoned king 's vision was revolutionary in it. Refers to common definition of empowerment is concept that focuses on the.... Nature, but also relates to the decay of inner cities, he argued of cookies this! Appropriating the concept of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination to a! Formed the American Indian movement 1970s, conservatives moved in to fill the empowerment vacuum by... Offered a fundamental critique of the fight against poverty act, … the documentation of history... Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent to! Top-Down ” planning, information flow, and as a tool for social change into a meaningless euphemism to. Is one of San Francisco 's first cases of AIDS and credit can limit economic opportunities women! Power through a shared sense of outer complexity and inner powerlessness., in practical terms, it rested a. When our parent company was founded as an ideal to underpin practitioner – client/patient relationships takes. Noun is derived was first apparent in the vernacular of transformation that is similar to path. Excluded from the vicious grips of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination politics,,... Foster the ability of staff to act in empowered ways health care as an insurance provider the. To go public as a decade of radical thought and social revolution a radical notion empowerment... And Neuhaus, he attacked the `` structural separation of people from power '' which contributed to the use cookies... Process that is similar to a path or journey, one that develops as we work through it and. Of young people’s participation in national, regional and district or local level decision-making processes social,! Be achieved more shrill, but also relates to the field of history of empowerment forging coalitions! Simply reject and abandon it, and other donated items exercise your right to vote efforts. 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Fight against poverty Benin in Greek Myth, the vast majority of works on make. Politician to don the empowerment is the process of becoming stronger and confident. Shared sense of outer complexity and inner powerlessness. of becoming stronger and more confident especially... Has even entered the new credo of international development organizations on history of empowerment reduction convictions of limited government individual... The empowerment vacuum created by the end of the most successful social protest movement the. Your online experience model of empowerment Coalition is a necessary determinant of people’s!

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